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Solar RO Plant

  • Solar Energy:
  • What is Solar Power: Solar Power is the conversion of sunlight into electricity. Its done in two ways-

1. Directly Using Photo Voltaic (PV)

2. Indirectly using Concentrated Solar Power (CSP)

  • Photo Voltaic(PV) –
  • PV is an electrical device which convert light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effects is used, called Solar Cell. mainly constructed with- Monocrystalline Silicon Polycrystalline Silicon Amorphous Silicon Cadmium Telluride
  •   Photovoltaic effect –

1. When sun light falls on silicon metal cell.

2. Electron on the valance band observes the energy in the  form of heat, and get excited and goes to conduction band.

3. These free electron conduction band attracted towards positive electrode, thus circuit gets complete and current  start follow.

  • Construction of PV Panel –  Constructed from thin wafers of crystalline Silicon, 150mm by 150mm by 180-360 microns thick.
  • Solar Cells – directly convert light into electricity. 1.light (fotons) 4.diversion layer 2.Front contact 5.positive layer 3.Negative layer 6.back contact Structure of solar cell- 1.Silicon cell may be of the type single crystalline, multi crystalline or amorphous.  difference between these cells is how the silicon atoms are ordered, the crystalline structure. Monocrystalline polycrystalline flexible amorphous
  • Solar panel – Solar panels consist of solar cells. As one single solar cell does not produce sufficient energy for most purposes, solar cells are put together in solar panels so that they produce more electricity jointly.
  • Grid-tied PV Installation – The energy output from a single PV panel is typically in the range of 180 – 250 Watts in bright sunshine. A photovoltaic system is normally built up from a number of panels (an array), linked together to produce a more significant energy output.

Solar Panels in Use 

Because of their current costs, only rural and other customers far away from power lines use solar panels because it is more cost effective than extending power lines

Direct Conversion into Electricity


  • Photovoltaic cells are capable of directly converting sunlight into electricity.
  • A simple wafer of silicon with wires attached to the layers. Current is produced based on types of silicon (n- and p-types) used for the layers. Each cell=0.5 volts.
  • Battery needed as storage
  • No moving parts à do not wear out, but because they are exposed to the weather, their lifespan is about 20 years.

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